Phil Callahan Soil Meter (PCSM)
Phil Callahan (paramagnetic) Soil Meter
Definition of paramagnetism: The atoms or molecules of a paramagnetic substance have a net magnetic spin such that the spins are capable of being temporarily aligned in the direction of an applied electromagnetic field when they are placed in that field. This produces an internal magnetic field (magnetic moment). They differ from magnetic substances (such as iron, nickel, & cobalt) where such spins remain aligned even when they are out of the applied field, e.g. are permanent. Magnetic susceptibility is measured, according to the physics handbook, in millionths of a CGS unit (Centimeters Grams Second), 1 × 10-6 CGS, or µCGS.
What does this mean for agriculture? All volcanic soil & rock is paramagnetic, (from 200 to 2,000 µCGS). According to Dr. Callahan’s research, a soil magnetic susceptibility reading of 0 - 100 µCGS would be poor; 100 - 300 µCGS good; 300 - 800 µCGS very good; & 800 -1200 µCGS above excellent. This force can be added to soil, where it has eroded away, by spreading ground-up paramagnetic rock (basalt, granite, etc.) into the soil.
Dr. Callahan estimates that 60 to 70% of this volcanic paramagnetic force has been eroded away worldwide. Soil should be "alive" with living organisms e.g. bacteria and earth worms, plant material (compost) & the rich soil paramagnetic force. Mineralization of the soil by adding separate minerals does not necessarily mean that the paramagnetic force has been added. For more information about paramagnetism, we recommend Dr. Callahan’s book, ”Paramagnetism - Rediscovering Nature’s Secret Force of Growth”, (sold separately).
The PCSM is made in USA of rugged, solid-state construction. It comes in a carrying case & can easily be taken into the field. Dual Range PCSM Toggle switch allows you to select between the two measurement ranges: from 0 to 2,000 µCGS in increments of 1 µCGS or from 10 to 20,000 µCGS in increments of 10 µCGS. Reads on a digital scale. Includes operating instructions.
" I have always considered it unfortunate that most scientific CGS meters like the Bartington Model MS2, cost between $4000-$8000 depending on attachments...
...What is needed for the practical working farmer is a simple hand-held meter that will read positive paramagnetism from 0-2000 CGS... with the help of Bob Pike, we have spent over a year perfecting this instrument and have named it the P.C. Soil Meter (PCSM)...
...I have tested it all over the United States and in Japan and Australia. It is rugged and works to perfection."
THE PCSM IS MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY PIKE AGRI-LAB SUPPLIES AND IS THE ONLY LOW COST PARAMAGNETISIM METER IN THE WORLD!